Tourism constraints for Spanish tourists with disabilities: Scale development and validation

Ariadna Gassiot, Lluís Prats, Lluís Coromina

Resum

A Espanya, més de 2,5 milions de persones viuen amb algun tipus de discapacitat (Imserso, 2014). Les barreres turístiques es poden definir com factors que influencien la participació i el comportament dels turistes i es divideixen en tres categories: intrapersonals, interpersonals i estructurals. L’objectiu d’aquest estudi exploratori és desenvolupar i validar una escala per mesurar els tipus de barreres que 248 turistes espanyols amb algun tipus de discapacitat han d’afrontar quan viatgen. Els resultats mostren que les barreres intrapersonals deriven en tres factors diferents: falta de coneixement, problemes de salut i dependència física i psicològica. Les barreres interpersonals es divideixen en dos factors: incongruències entre habilitat i repte, i comunicació. Les barreres estructurals es classifiquen en quatre factors: informació i comunicació, cost i cuidador, socioespacials i d’actitud. Tenint en compte la importància d’aquest segment de mercat a Espanya i a la resta del món, l’article aporta una eina quantitativa per tal que les destinacions turístiques puguin avaluar les barreres turístiques que aquests turistes amb necessitats especials d’accessibilitat poden trobar quan les visiten.

Paraules clau

turisme accessible; turisme per a tothom; discapacitat; barreres

Text complet:

PDF (English)

Referències

BI, Y., CARD, J. A. and COLE, S. T. (2007). “Accessibility and attitudinal barriers encountered by Chinese travellers with Physical Disabilities”. International Journal of Tourism Research, 9, 205-216. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.603

BLICHFELDT, B. S. and NICOLAISEN, J. (2011). “Disabled travel: not easy, but doable”. Current Issues in Tourism, 14(1), 79-102. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500903370159

BOOTHBY, J., TUNGATT, M. F. and TOWNSEND, A. R. (1981). “Ceasing Participation in Sports Activity: Reported Reasons and Their Implications”. Journal of Leisure Research, 13, 1-14.

BURNETT, J. J. and BAKER, H. B. (2001). “Assessing the Travel-Related Behaviors of the Mobility-Disabled Consumer”. Journal of Travel Research, 40(1), 4-11. https://doi.org/10.1177/004728750104000102

BURNS, N., PATERSON, K. and WATSON, N. (2009). “An inclusive outdoors? Disabled people’s experiences of countryside leisure services”. Leisure Studies, 28(4), 403-417. https://doi.org/10.1080/02614360903071704

CAMERON, B., DARCY, S. and COLE, S. T. (2003). Barrier-free tourism for people with disabilities in the Asian and Pacific region. Available at: http://www.accessibletourism.org/resources/10_barrierfree_tourism_asia_pacific_en.pdf

CARMINES, E. G. and ZELLER, R. A. (1979). Reliability and validity assessment. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412985642

CARNEIRO, M. J. and CROMPTON, J. L. (2009). “The Influence of Involvement, Familiarity, and Constraints on the Search for Information about Destinations”. Journal of Travel Research, 49(4), 451-470. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287509346798

CHEN, H. J., CHEN, P. J. and OKUMUS, F. (2012). “The relationship between travel constraints and destination image: A case study of Brunei”. Tourism Management, 35, 198-208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2012.07.004

CHURCHILL, G. A. J. (1979). “A paradigm for developing better measures of marketing constructs”. Journal of Marketing Research, 16(1), 64-73. https://doi.org/10.2307/3150876

CRAWFORD, D. W. and GODBEY, G. (1987). “Reconceptualizing barriers to family leisure”. Leisure Sciences, 9(2), 119-128. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490408709512151

CRAWFORD, D. W., JACKSON, E. L. and GODBEY, G. (1991). “A Hierarchical Model of Leisure Constraints”. Leisure Sciences, 13(4), 309-320. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490409109513147

DANIELS, M. J., DROGIN RODGERS, E. B. and WIGGINS, B. P. (2005). “‘Travel Tales’: an interpretive analysis of constraints and negotiations to pleasure travel as experienced by persons with physical disabilities”. Tourism Management, 26(6), 919-930. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2004.06.010

DARCY, S. (2004). Disabling journeys; The social relations of tourism for people with impairments in Australia – An analysis of government tourism authorities and accommodation sector practices and discourses. PhD Thesis, University of Technology, Sydney, Sydney.

DARCY, S. (2010). “Inherent complexity: Disability, accessible tourism and accommodation information preferences”. Tourism Management, 31(6), 816-826. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2009.08.010

DARCY, S., CAMERON, B. and PEGG, S. (2010). “Accessible tourism and sustainability: a discussion and case study”. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(4), 515-537. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669581003690668

FIGUEIREDO, E., EUSÉBIO, C. and KASTENHOLZ, E. (2012). “How Diverse are Tourists with Disabilities? A Pilot Study on Accessible Leisure Tourism Experiences in Portugal”. International Journal of Tourism Research, 14, 531-550. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.1913

FORNELL, C. and LARCKER, D. F. (1981). “Evaluating Structural Equations Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error”. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50. https://doi.org/10.2307/3151312

FREEMAN, I. and SELMI, N. (2009). “French versus Canadian Tourism: Response to the Disabled”. Journal of Travel Research, 49(4), 471-485. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287509349268

HAWKINS, B. A., HSIEH, C. and EKLUND, S. J. (1999). “Leisure Constraints: A Replication and Extension of Construct Development”. Leisure Sciences, 21(3), 179-192. https://doi.org/10.1080/014904099273066

HUA, K. P., IBRAHIM, I. and CHIU, L. K. (2013). “Sport Tourism: Physically-disabled Sport Tourists’ Orientation”. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 91, 257-269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.08.423

HUDSON, S. and GILBERT, D. (2000). “Tourism Constraints: The Neglected Dimension in Consumer Behaviour Research”. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 8(4), 69-78. https://doi.org/10.1300/J073v08n04_05

HUNG, K. and PETRICK, J. F. (2010). “Developing a Measurement Scale for Constraints to Cruising”. Annals of Tourism Research, 37(1), 206-228. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2009.09.002

IMSERSO (2014). Base Estatal de Datos de Personas con Valoración del Grado de Discapacidad. World Report on Disability. Madrid: Subdirección General de Planificación, Ordenación y Evaluación.

JACKSON, E. L. (1988). “Leisure Constraints: A Survey of Past Research”. Leisure Sciences, 10(3), 203-215. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490408809512190

JACKSON, E. L. (1991). “Special Issue Introduction: Leisure Constraints/Constrained Leisure”. Leisure Sciences, 13(4), 273-278. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490409109513144

JACKSON, E. L., CRAWFORD, D. W. and GODBEY, G. (1993). “Negotiation of Leisure Constraints”. Leisure Sciences, 15, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490409309513182

JACKSON, E. L. and SEARLE, M. S. (1985). “Recreation, non-participation and barriers to participation: Concepts and models”. Society and Leisure, 8(2), 693-707. https://doi.org/10.1080/07053436.1985.10715236

KASTENHOLZ, E., EUSÉBIO, C. and FIGUEIREDO, E. (2015). “Contributions of tourism to social inclusion of persons with disability”. Disability and Society, 30(8), 1259-1281. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2015.1075868

LEE, B. K., AGARWAL, S. and KIM, H. J. (2012). “Influences of travel constraints on the people with disabilities’ intention to travel: An application of Seligman’s helplessness theory”. Tourism Management, 33(3), 569-579. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2011.06.011

MCGUIRE, F. (1984). “A factor analytic study of leisure constraints in advanced adulthood”. Leisure Sciences, 6(3), 313-326. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490408409513038

NYAUPANE, G. P. and ANDERECK, K. L. (2007). “Understanding Travel Constraints: Application and Extension of a Leisure Constraints Model”. Journal of Travel Research, 46(4), 433-439. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287507308325

PORIA, Y., REICHEL, A. and BRANDT, Y. (2009). “The Flight Experiences of People with Disabilities: An Exploratory Study”. Journal of Travel Research, 49(2), 216-227. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287509336477

PORIA, Y., REICHEL, A. and BRANDT, Y. (2011). “Dimensions of hotel experience of people with disabilities: an exploratory study”. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 23(5), 571-591. https://doi.org/10.1108/09596111111143340

PRIPORAS, C. V., VASSILIADIS, C., BELLOU, V. and ANDRONIKIDIS, A. (2015). “Exploring the Constraint Profile of Winter Sports Resort Tourist Segments”. Journal of Travel Research, 54(5), 659-671. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287514528285

RAY, N. M. and RYDER, M. E. (2003). “’Ebilities’ tourism: an exploratory discussion of the travel needs and motivations of the mobility-disabled”. Tourism Management, 24(1), 57-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(02)00037-7

RAYMORE, L., GODBEY, G., CRAWFORD, D. W. and VON EYE, A. (1993). “Nature and Process of Leisure Constraints: An Empirical Test”. Leisure Sciences, 15(2), 99-113. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490409309513191

SAMDAHL, D. M. and JEKUBOVICH, N. J. (1997). “A critique of leisure constraints: Comparative analyses and understandings”. Journal of Leisure Research, 29(4), 430-452.

SEARLE, M. S. and JACKSON, E. L. (1985). “Socioeconomic variations in perceived barriers to recreation participation among would-be participants”. Leisure Sciences, 7, 227-249. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490408509512120

SHAW, G. and COLES, T. (2004). “Disability, holiday making and the tourism industry in the UK: a preliminary survey”. Tourism Management, 25(3), 397-403. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(03)00139-0

SMITH, R. W. (1987). “Leisure of Disabled Tourists: Barriers to Participation”. Annals of Tourism Research, 14, 376-389. https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-7383(87)90109-5

TALAVERA-GARCIA, R., SORIA-LARA, J. and VALENZUELA-MONTES, L. M. (2014). “La calidad peatonal como método para evaluar entornos de movilidad urbana”. Documents d’Anàlisi Geogràfica, 60, 161-187. https://doi.org/10.5565/rev/dag.55

TSAUR, S. H., LIN, W. R. and LIU, J. S. (2013). “Sources of challenge for adventure tourists: Scale development and validation”. Tourism Management, 38, 85-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2013.03.004

WILLIAMS, R., RATTRAY, R. and GRIMES, A. (2006). “Meeting the On-line Needs of Disabled Tourists: An Assessment of UK-based Hotel Websites”. International Journal of Tourism Research, 8, 59-73. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.547

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION and THE WORLD BANK (2011). World Report on Disability. Malta: World Health Organisation.

YAU, M. K., MCKERCHER, B. And PACKER, T. L. (2004). “Traveling with a disability”. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(4), 946-960. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2004.03.007

Comentaris per a aquest article

Visualitza tots els comentaris
Copyright (c) 2018 Ariadna Gassiot Melian
Llicència de Creative Commons
Aquesta obra està subjecta a una llicència de Reconeixement-NoComercial 4.0 Internacional de Creative Commons