La partición de Kosovo: ¿redibujar fronteras para conseguir la paz?

Miguel Borja Bernabé-Crespo

Resum

Kosovo és un estat parcialment reconegut amb una gran varietat de minories ètniques, on la relació albanesa-sèrbia és la que ocasiona més tensions. La proposta d’intercanvi de territoris per corregir la frontera entre Sèrbia i Kosovo presenta com a benefici el reconeixement mutu i la normalització de relacions, però comporta el risc d’obrir la capsa de Pandora de les revisions frontereres als Balcans. L’article inclou un repàs de les relacions entre Sèrbia i Kosovo amb una abundant selecció de notes de premsa. Analitza aquesta proposta i reflecteix la situació actual dels territoris i debat la seva idoneïtat. Conclou que la UE hauria d’oferir claredat i un compromís ferm i tangible de progrés per consolidar la seva credibilitat, i alhora donar suport a la democratització per afavorir la seva integració europea.

Paraules clau

correcció de fronteres; minories ètniques; intercanvi de territoris; Balcans Occidentals; Kosovo

Text complet:

PDF (Español)

Referències

AITKEN, Rob (2007). «Cementing divisions?». Policy Studies, 28 (3), 247-267. https://doi.org/10.1080/01442870701437568

ANCEL, Jacques (2016) [orig. 1936]. «La geografía de las fronteras: el método». Geopolítica(s), 7 (1), 131-142. https://doi.org/10.5209/rev_GEOP.2016.v7.n1.52954

ARMAKOLAS, Ioannis y KER-LINDSAY, James (2020). The politics of recognition and engagement. EU Member State Relations with Kosovo. New Perspectives on South-East Europe. Cham, Suiza: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-17945-8

ASK (2012). Rezultatet përfundimtare të regjistrimit të popullsisë 2011. Pristina: Agjencioni i Statistikave të Kosovës.

BAKOTA, Ivica (2018). «Montenegro external relations briefing: Kosovo-Montenegro border demarcation problem and its implications for Montenegro». China-CEE Institute Weekly Briefing, 5 (4).

BALIQI, Bekim (2018). «Promoting multi-ethnicity or maintaining a divided society: dilemmas of power-sharing in Kosovo». Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe, 17 (1), 49-71.

BARGUÉS-PEDRENY, Pol (2016). «From promoting to de-emphasizing “ethnicity”: Rethinking the endless supervision of Kosovo». Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, 10 (2), 222-240. https://doi.org/10.1080/17502977.2015.1137392

BERNABÉ-CRESPO, Miguel Borja (2020). «Fronteras ocultas en la zona gris europea». Geopolítica(s). Revista de Estudios sobre Espacio y Poder, 11 (2), 71-93.

BERNABÉ-CRESPO, Miguel Borja y PEÑA-RAMOS, José Antonio (2019). «The management of water resources in a disputed border. The case of Gazivoda reservoir (Kosovo)». Fronteiras: Journal of Social, Technological and Environmental Science, 8 (1), 319-340. https://doi.org/10.21664/2238-8869.2019v8i1.p319-340

BIEBER, Florian (2015). «The Serbia-Kosovo Agreements: An EU success story?». Review of Central and East European Law, 40 (3-4), 285-319. https://doi.org/10.1163/15730352-04003008

BIEBER, Florian (2017). «Trump and the Balkan Princes: What Trump’s presidency means for South East Europe». London School of Economics Blog, 6 de febrero de 2017. Recuperado de https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/europpblog/2017/02/06/trump-and-the-balkan-princes/

BIEBER, Florian (2020). The rise of authoritarianism in the Western Balkans. New Perspectives on South East Europe. Palgrave Pivot. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-22149-2

BIEBER, Florian y KEIL, Sören (2009). «Power-sharing revisited: lessons learned in the Balkans». Review of Central and East European Law, 34, 337-360. https://doi.org/10.1163/092598809X12474728805778

BLITZT, Brad K. (2006). War and change in the Balkans. Nationalism, conflict and cooperation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F00223433070440040902

BORGH, Chris van der (2012). «Resisting international state building in Kosovo». Problems of Post-Communism, 59 (2), 31-42. https://doi.org/10.2753/PPC1075-8216590203

BÜRKNER, Hans Joachim (2020). «Europeanisation versus Euroscepticism: Do borders matter?». Geopolitics, 25 (3), 545-566. https://doi.org/10.1080/14650045.2020.1723964

CAIRO, Heriberto (2001). «Territorialidad y fronteras del estado-nación: Las condiciones de la política en un mundo fragmentado». Política y Sociedad, 36, 29-38. Recuperado de https://revistas.ucm.es/index.php/POSO/article/view/POSO0101130029A

CALIĆ, Marie Janine (2000). «Kosovo in the twentieth century: A historical account». En: THAKUR, Ramesh y SCHNABEL, Albrecht (ed.). Kosovo and the challenge of humanitarian intervention: selective indignation, collective action, and international citizenship. Tokio: United Nations University Press.

CALU, Marius Ionut (2020). Kosovo divided: Ethnicity, Nationalism and the Struggle for a State. Londres: I. B. Tauris. http://dx.doi.org/10.5040/9781838606626

CAPUSSELA, Andrea Lorenzo (2018). «Kosovo and Serbia: A dangerous but not unprecedented Balkan land swap». London School of Economics Blog, 29 de agosto de 2018. Recuperado de https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/europpblog/2018/08/29/kosovo-and-serbia-a-dangerous-but-not-unprecedented-balkan-land-swap/

CONSTITUCIÓN DE LA REPÚBLICA DE KOSOVO (2008). Pristina: Parlamento de la República de Kosovo.

DAHLMAN, Carl T. (2017). «Faire frontière dans la paix: le Kosovo et la décentralisation de la concurrence ethno-politique». L’Espace Politique, 33. https://doi.org/10.4000/espacepolitique.4424

DAHLMAN, Carl T. y Ó TUATHAIL, Gerard (2005). «The legacy of ethnic cleansing: The International Community and the returns process in Post-Dayton Bosnia-Herzegovina». Political Geography, 24 (5), 569-599. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polgeo.2005.01.007

DEMJAHA, Agon (2016). «Inter-ethnic relations in Kosovo». SEEU Review, 12 (1), 181-196. https://doi.org/10.1515/seeur-2017-0013

DERENS, Jean-Arnault (2007). «Kosovo: le piège va-t-il se refermer?». Politique Étrangère, 4, 713-725. https://doi.org/10.3917/pe.074.0713

DJUKANOVIĆ, Dragan (2008). «The post-conflict integration of minority ethnic communities in Kosovo». 3rd Annual Conference on Human Security, Terrorism and Organized Crime in the Western Balkan Region. Belgrado: HUMSEC.

ESI (2019). The Hypnotist: Aleksandar Vucic, John Bolton and the return of the past. Berlín, Bruselas, Estambul: European Stability Initiative Report, 25 de abril de 2019.

FABRY, Mikulas (2012). «The contemporary practice of state recognition: Kosovo, South Ossetia, Abkhazia, and their aftermath». Nationalities Papers, 40 (5), 661-676. https://doi.org/10.1080/00905992.2012.705266

FALUDI, Andreas (2013). «Territorial cohesion and subsidiarity under the European Union treaties: A critique of the “territorialism” underlying». Regional Studies, 47 (9), 1.594-1.606. https://doi.org/10.1080/00343404.2012.657170

FINLAY, Andrew (2011). Governing ethnic conflict. Consociation, identity and the price of peace. Londres: Routledge.

FORSBERG, Tuomas y MÄKINEN, Sirke (2019). «Russian discourse on borders and territorial questions – Crimea as a watershed?». Russian Politics, 4, 211-241. https://doi.org/10.1163/2451-8921-00402004

FORT, Emilie (2018). «From power-sharing arrangements to identity building: The case of Kosovo Serbs in Kosovo». Ethnopolitics, 17 (5), 503-518. https://doi.org/10.1080/17449057.2018.1511159

GASHI, Krenar; MUSLIU, Vjosa y ORBIE, Jan (2017). «Mediation through recontextualization: The European Union and the dialogue between Kosovo and Serbia». European Foreign Affairs Review, 22 (4), 533-550. Recuperado de http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-8554525

GIBAND, David y VICENTE RUFÍ, Joan (2018). «Los espacios transfronterizos europeos: ¿un objeto geográfico de difícil definición? Una aproximación desde la perspectiva de los soft spaces». Documents d’Anàlisi Geogràfica, 64/3, 421-441. https://doi.org/10.5565/rev/dag.520

GUÉHENNO, Jean-Marie (2000). The end of the Nation-State. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

HARTSHORNE, Richard (1937). «The Polish Corridor». Journal of Geography, 36, 161-176.

HOPF, T. (2016). «Crimea is ours: a discursive history». International Relations, 30 (2), 227-255. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0047117816645646

HOROWITZ, Donald L. (1993). «Democracy in divided societies». Journal of Democracy, 4 (4), 18-38.

HUSZKA, Beata (2007). «The Presevo Valley of Southern Serbia alongside Kosovo: The case for Decentralisation and Minority Protection». Centre for European Policy Studies, 120, 1-10.

ICJ (2010). Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independance in Respect of Kosovo. International Court of Justice, Reports 2010, p. 403.

ISLAMI, Hivzi y EJUPI, Arsim (2015). Popullsia dhe vendbanimet shqiptare të luginës së Preshevës (Albanian Population and settlements of the Presheva Valley: present situation and trends). Pristina: Kosova Academy of Sciences and Arts, Special Editions CXLVI. Section of Social Sciences, Book 50.

JEFFREY, Alex (2007). «The politics of ‘democratization’: Lessons from Bosnia and Iraq». Review of International Political Economy, 14 (3), 444-466. https://doi.org/10.1080/09692290701395718

JOSEPH, Edward P. (2018). «How to restart war in the Balkans». Foreign Policy, 4 de septiembre de 2018. Recuperado de https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/09/04/how-to-restart-war-in-the-balkans/

JOSEPH, Edward P. (2020). «Anatomy of a Kosovo Summit Catastrophe». Foreign Policy, 24 de junio de 2020. Recuperado de https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/06/24/kosovo-serbia-summit-white-house-catastrophe-balkans-peace-process/

KASA (2013). Kosova: A monographic survey. Pristina: Kosova Academy of Sciences and Arts.

KELMAN, Herbert C. (2005). «Building trust among enemies: the central challenge for internacional conflict resolution». International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29, 639-650. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.07.011

KER-LINDSAY, James (2009). Kosovo. The path to contested statehood in the Balkans. Nueva York: IB Tauris.

KER-LINDSAY, James (2012). The Foreign Policy of Counter Secession: Preventing the Recognition of Contested States. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

KITANICS, Máté y PAP, Norbert (2012). «Las relaciones geopolíticas de las áreas albanesas». HAOL, 27, 103-116.

KRASNIQI, Gëzim (2012). «Overlapping jurisdictions, disputed territory, unsettled state: the perplexing case of citizenship in Kosovo». Citizenship Studies, 16 (3-4), 353-366. https://doi.org/10.1080/13621025.2012.683214

KUPCHAN, Charles A. (2018). «An Offensive Plan for the Balkans That the U.S. Should Get Behind». The New York Times, de 13 de septiembre de 2018. Recuperado de https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/13/opinion/kosovo-serbia-land-swap.html

KYMLICKA, Will y STRAEHLE, Christine (2001). Cosmopolitismo, Estado-nación y nacionalismo de las minorías. México DF: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

LASSERRE, Frédéric (2019). «Le projet d’échange de territoires entre Serbie et Kosovo: une avenue crédible pour la paix?». Regards Géopolitiques, Bulletin du Conseil Québecois d’Études Géopolitiques, 5 (3), 25-40. Recuperado de http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/37253

LIJPHART, Arend (1977). Democracy in plural societies: A comparative exploration. New Haven: Yale University Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/1954827

MALCOLM, Noel (1998). Kosovo: a short history. Nueva York: New York University Press, Harper Perennial.

MARKOVIĆ, Ksenija; JOVANOVIĆ, Marko y MATIJEVIĆ, Branka (2019). «Kosovo and Metohija or the European Union – A rhetorical dilemma in the Serbian political discourse». Serbian Political Thought, 66 (4), 173-192. https://doi.org/10.22182/spm.6642019.8

MARTÍNEZ I EDO, Xavier (1993). «De la desintegración de la URSS a la recomposición del espacio ex-soviético». Boletín de la AGE, 17, 25-47.

MATVEEVA, Anna y PAES, Wolf Christian (2003). The Kosovo Serbs: An ethnic minority between collaboration and defiance. Bonn: BIIC.

MOORE, Margaret (1998). National self-determination and secession. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/0198293844.001.0001

MURPHY, Alexander B. (1990). «Historical justifications for territorial claims». Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 80 (4), 531-548. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.1990.tb00316.x

OSWIAK, Andrew P. y RIDER, Toby J. (2013). «Clearing the hurdle: Border settlement and rivalry termination». The Journal of Politics, 75 (3), 757-772. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022381613000595

RAMET, Sabrina P. (2002). Balkan Babel: The disintegration of Yugoslavia from the death of Tito to the fall of Milosevic. Boulder: Westview Press.

RATZEL, Friedrich (1896). «Die Gesetze des räumlichen Wachstums der Staaten». Peterman Mitteilugen, 42, 97-107.

ROSSI, Michael (2014). «Ending the impasse in Kosovo: partition, decentralization, or consociationalism?». Nationalities Papers, 42 (5), 867-889. https://doi.org/10.1080/00905992.2014.937683

ROSSI, Michael (2018a). «Partition in Kosovo will lead to disaster». Foreign Policy, 19 de septiembre de 2018. Recuperado de https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/09/19/partition-in-kosovo-will-lead-to-disaster-serbia-vucic-thaci-mitrovica-ibar/

ROSSI, Michael (2018b). «A land swap between Kosovo and Serbia would be deeply problematic – and potentially dangerous». London School of Economics Blog, 17 de agosto de 2018. Recuperado de https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/europpblog/2018/08/17/a-land-swap-between-kosovo-and-serbia-would-be-deeply-problematic-and-potentially-dangerous/

ROTHCHILD, Donald S. y LAKE, David A. (2005). «Territorial decentralization and civil war settlements». En: ROEDER, Philip G. y ROTHCHILD, Donald S. (eds.). Sustainable Peace: Power and democracy after civil wars. Nueva York: Cornell University Press, 109-132.

ROUX, Michel (2003). «Controverses sur les frontières du Kosovo». Balkanologie. Revue d’Études Pluridisciplinaires, 7 (2), 183-197.

SIMMONS, Beth A. (2005). «Rules over Real Estate: Trade, territorial conflict and international borders as institution». The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49 (6), 823-848. Recuperado de https://ssrn.com/abstract=1518016

SPAHIU, Nexhmedin (1999). «Serb proposals for partitioning Kosova». Central Europe Review, 1 (1).

TOKTOGULOV, Beishenbek (2018). «The failure of settlement on Kyrgyz-Uzbek border ussues: a lack of diplomacy?». Bilge Strateji, 10 (19), 85-106.

VÉGH, Andor (2012). «Minorities, mother countries, majority on the Western Balkans». HAOL, 27, 83-101.

VELÁZQUEZ, César A. y PÉREZ, Gabriel (2010). «Las transformaciones del Estado-nación en el contexto de la globalización». Política y Cultura, 34, 107-127. Recuperado de http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-77422010000200006&lng=es&tlng=es

VLADISAVLJEVIĆ, Nebojsa (2004). «Grassroots groups, Milosevic or dissident intellectuals? A controversy over the origins and dynamics of the mobilisation of Kosovo Serbs in the 1980s». Nationalities Papers, 32 (4), 783-796. https://doi.org/10.1080/0090599042000296113

VULOVIĆ, Marina (2020). «Performing statehood in Northern Kosovo: Discursive struggle over contested space». Cooperation and Conflict, OnlineFirst. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0010836720906851

WATERS, Timothy William (2020). Boxing Pandora: Rethinking borders, States and Secession in a democratic world. New Haven y Londres: Yale University Press.

ZACHER, M. (2001). «The territorial integrity norm: International boundaries and the use of force». International Organization, 55 (2), 215-250.

ZEJNULLAHI, Veton (2015). «Albanians in Presevo Valley and their national rights». European Journal of Language and Literature Studies, 2 (1), 89-94. https://dx.doi.org/10.26417/ejls.v2i1.p90-99

Noticias de prensa

AL JAZEERA (05/06/2020). «Bosniaks in Montenegro live in fear, anxiety following election». https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/09/05/bosniaks-in-montenegro-live-in-fear-anxiety-following-election/

B92 (21/04/2017). «Greater Albania must include Presevo, and Nis, says mayor». https://www.b92.net/eng/news/politics.php?yyyy=2017&mm=04&dd=21&nav_id=101083

B92 (09/08/2018). «Vucic: My policy is delimitation with Albanians». https://www.b92.net/eng/news/politics.php?yyyy=2018&mm=08&dd=09&nav_id=104824

B92 (27/05/2020). «Mustafa: The final phase of the dialogue between Serbia and Kosovo soon to follow». https://www.b92.net/eng/news/politics.php?yyyy=2020&mm=05&dd=27&nav_id=108569

B92 (31/05/2020). «Vucic: There’s no doubt – without resolving Kosovo issue, Serbia will not join the EU». https://www.b92.net/eng/news/politics.php?yyyy=2020&mm=05&dd=31&nav_id=108594

B92 (11/06/2020). «Vucic: The recognition of Kosovo is not on the agenda». https://www.b92.net/eng/news/politics.php?yyyy=2020&mm=06&dd=11&nav_id=108668

BETA (15/06/2020). «Putin: Nijedna odluka o Kosovu ne može biti doneta bez Saveta bezbednosti UN». https://beta.rs/vesti/politika-vesti-srbija/128884-putin-nijedna-odluka-o-kosovu-ne-moze-biti-doneta-bez-saveta-bezbednosti-un

BLIC (28/05/2018). «Dačić: Podela Kosova jedino moguće i brzo rešenje, ali treba videti i druge opcije». https://www.blic.rs/vesti/politika/dacic-podela-kosova-jedino-moguce-i-brzo-resenje-ali-treba-videti-i-druge-opcije/l9pefsm

BLIC (25/07/2018). «Vučić: Nećete razgraničenje sa Albancima? A za 40 godina ćemo braniti Vranje…». https://www.blic.rs/vesti/politika/vucic-necete-razgranicenje-sa-albancima-a-za-40-godina-cemo-braniti-vranje/0zrjg64

COURRIER DES BALKANS (03/06/2020). «Kosovo: 168.000 euros pour promouvoir l’idée d’un échange de territoires». https://www.courrierdesbalkans.fr/Kosovo-fait-la-promotion-de-l-echange-de-territoires

DANAS (04/03/2019). «Vučić nagovestio da ne isključuje mogućnost priznanja Kosova». https://www.danas.rs/politika/vucic-nagovestio-da-ne-iskljucuje-mogucnost-priznanja-kosova/

DW (19/02/2018). «Albania’s Edi Rama floats joint president idea in Kosovo». https://www.dw.com/en/albanias-edi-rama-floats-joint-president-idea-in-kosovo/a-42642058

EUROPA PRESS (14/05/2020). «El enviado de la UE para el diálogo Belgrado-Pristina afirma que el canje de territorios no está en la agenda». https://www.europapress.es/internacional/noticia-enviado-ue-dialogo-belgrado-pristina-afirma-canje-territorios-no-agenda-20200514182128.html

GLAS AMERIKE (28/03/2008). «Bolton: Podela Kosova bila bi pravična, ali ne bi rešila problem manjina». https://www.glasamerike.net/a/a-34-2008-03-28-voa6-86820287/741736.html

IBNA (25/02/2019). «The detailed agreement between Kosovo and Serbia is leaked». https://balkaneu.com/the-detailed-agreement-between-kosovo-and-serbia-is-leaked/

KLIX (06/09/2020). «Hiljade ljudi na skupu u Podgorici: Ne damo Crnu Goru, ne smije biti crnih ptica ni Srebrenica». https://www.klix.ba/vijesti/regija/hiljade-ljudi-na-skupu-u-podgorici-ne-damo-crnu-goru-ne-smije-biti-crnih-ptica-ni-srebrenica/200906089

KOSOVO 2.0 (17/02/2019). «Voices from the borderlands». https://kosovotwopointzero.com/en/voices-from-the-borderlands/

KOSSEV (06/02/2018). «Unutrašnji dijalog o KiM: Adresa za rešenje srpsko-albanskog sukoba – Tirana, ne Priština». https://kossev.info/unutrasnji-dijalog-o-kim-adresa-za-resenje-srpsko-albanskog-sukoba-tirana-ne-pristina/

KOSSEV (22/09/2018). «Koha: Thaci will return Rankovic’s gift to Serbia». https://kossev.info/koha-thaci-will-return-rankovics-gift-to-serbia/

KSC (24/06/2020). «Kosovo Specialist Chambers & Specialist Prosecutor’s Office – Press Statement 24 June 2020». https://www.scp-ks.org/en/press-statement

MINISTARSTVO ODBRANE REPUBLIKE SRBIJE (17/09/2020). «Ministar Vulin: Ako su u BiH za nezavisno “Kosovo”, ja sam za nezavisnu Republiku Srpsku». http://www.mod.gov.rs/lat/16493/ministar-vulin-ako-su-u-bih-za-nezavisno-kosovo-ja-sam-za-nezavisnu-republiku-srpsku-16493

N1 (31/01/2019). «Macedonia wants positive solution for Kosovo, Zaev tells N1». http://rs.n1info.com/English/NEWS/a456419/Macedonia-wants-positive-solution-for-Kosovo-Zaev-tells-N1.html

N1 (05/02/2019). «Kosovo President: Minor border correction acceptable for deal with Belgrade». http://rs.n1info.com/English/NEWS/a458057/Kosovo-s-Thaci-says-small-border-correction-with-Serbia-possible.html

NATIONAL REVIEW (28/03/2019). «Pompeo Casts Golan Heights Move As a Rejection of Conventional Wisdom». https://www.nationalreview.com/news/mike-pompeo-recognition-israel-sovereignty-golan-heights/

NEZAVISNE (27/03/2011). «Tadić: Albanci neće Srbiju, Srbi neće Kosovo». https://www.nezavisne.com/novosti/ex-yu/Tadic-Albanci-nece-Srbiju-Srbi-nece-Kosovo/84098

NEZAVISNE (30/08/2018). «Zvizdić: Priča o promjeni granica opasna». https://www.nezavisne.com/novosti/bih/Zvizdic-Prica-o-promjeni-granica-opasna/495037

PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOSOVO (08/01/2019). «President Thaçi writes to President Trump, pledges to work towards a historic agreement with Serbia». https://president-ksgov.net/en/news/president-thaci-writes-to-president-trump-pledges-to-work-towards-a-historic-agreement-with-serbia

PRISTINA INSIGHT (28/05/2020). «Border changes promoted with taxpayer money». https://prishtinainsight.com/border-changes-promoted-with-taxpayer-money/

PRISTINA INSIGHT (09/06/2020). «More land swap lobbying uncovered». https://prishtinainsight.com/more-land-swap-lobbying-uncovered/

RADIO SLOBODNA EVROPA (31/08/2020). «Crna Gora: Demokratski front slavi izborni rezultat pjesmama o Kosovu». https://www.slobodnaevropa.org/a/30811825.html?nocache=1

RFE/RL (19/06/2020). «Moscow’s Approval Necessary For Any Deal Between Serbia, Kosovo, Lavrov Says». https://www.rferl.org/a/russia-serbia-kosovo-lavrov-grenell/30679106.html

RFE/RL (25/06/2020). «Police In Montenegro Detain Dozens After Pro-Serbian Protests». https://www.rferl.org/a/police-in-montenegro-detain-dozens-after-pro-serb-protests/30690097.html

RTS (16/08/2018). «Vučić o KiM: Ako bude sporazuma, imaćemo više nego danas». https://www.rts.rs/page/stories/sr/story/9/politika/3231538/vucic-o-kim-ako-bude-sporazuma-imacemo-vise-nego-danas.html

RTS (02/03/2019). «Vučić za RTS: Priština čeka povoljan trenutak za napad na sever». https://www.rts.rs/page/stories/sr/story/9/politika/3438739/vucic-za-rts-pristina-ceka-povoljan-trenutak-za-napad-na-seve.html

TELEGRAF (15/09/2020). «Danas se prvi put u istoriji obeležava Dan srpskog jedinstva: Slave ga Srbija i Republika Srpska». https://www.telegraf.rs/vesti/srbija/3237505-danas-se-prvi-put-u-istoriji-obelezava-dan-srpskog-jedinstva-slave-ga-srbija-i-republika-srpska

THE INDEPENDENT (21/03/2018). «Tear gas released in Kosovo parliament by opposition party in bid to stop vote». https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/kosovo-parliament-tear-gas-opposition-party-stop-vote-vetevendosje-montenegro-a8266441.html

VIJESTI (15/04/2019). «Dodik: Da nema stranaca BiH ne bi trajala ni dva dana». https://vijesti.ba/clanak/442960/dodik-da-nema-stranaca-bih-ne-bi-trajala-ni-dva-dana

VIJESTI (26/09/2020) «Vulin: Vučić je predsjednik svih Srba». https://vijesti.ba/clanak/508539/vulin-vucic-je-predsjednik-svih-srba

Mètriques darticles

Carregant mètriques ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM
Copyright (c) 2021 Miguel Borja Bernabé-Crespo