Rethinking water management: From centralised to decentralised water supplyand sanitation models

Laia Domènech

Resum

Des de la segona meitat del segle xix, els sistemes centralitzats d’aigua i sanejament s’han anat expandint arreu del món. No obstant això, les limitacions d’aquest model són cada vegada més evidents i per això, en els últims anys, ha començat a créixer un interès renovat pel model descentralitzat de subministrament d’aigua i sanejament, ja que aquests darrers sistemes permeten augmentar la seguretat hídrica i minimitzar la degradació ambiental. Aquest article analitza principalment dos sistemes descentralitzats que poden ser instal·lats a nivell domèstic: els sistemes de captació d’aigües pluvials i els sistemes de reutilització d’aigües grises. L’objectiu principal d’aquest article és analitzar les característiques distin­tives més importants dels sistemes descentralitzats i els requeriments necessaris per assolir una transició amb èxit cap a un model descentralitzat de gestió de l’aigua.

Paraules clau

gestió de l’aigua; models alternatius; captació d’aigües pluvials; reutilització d’aigües grises; model urbà.

Text complet:

PDF (English)

Referències

Agenda 21. United Nations Conference for Environment and Development. Rio de Janeiro, 1992.

Ajuntament de Sant Cugat del Vallès (2008). Ordenança Municipal per a l’Estalvi d’Aigua. (Water saving local regulation). BOP 12-04-2008, 94.

Allan, J.A. (2001). The Middle East water question: Hydro politics and the global econ¬omy. London. New York: I.B. Tauris.

Angealakis, A.N. and Durham, B. (2008). «Water recycling and reuse in EUREAU countries: Trends and challenges». Desalination, 218, 3-12.

Argue, J.R. (1995). «Towards a universal stormwater management practice for arid zone residential developments». Water Science and Technology, 31 (1), 15-24.

Baggett, S.; Jeffrey, P. and Jefferson, B. (2006). «Risk perception in participatory planning for water reuse». Desalination, 187, 149-158.

Bakker, K. (2002). «From state to market?: water mercantilizacion in Spain». Environ¬ment and Planning A, 34, 767-790.

Bakker, K. (2003). «Archipelagos and networks: urbanization and water privatization in the South». The Geographical Journal, 169, 328-341.

Brown, R. (2005). «Impediments to integrated urban stormwater management: the need for institutional reform». Environmental Management, 36 (3), 455-468.

Brown, R.; Farrelly, M. and Keath, N. (2009). «Practitioner perceptions of social and institutional barriers to advancing a diverse water source approach in Aus¬tralia». Water Resources Development, 25 (1), 15-28.

Burns, D.; Vitvar, T.; McDonnell, J.; Hassett, J.; Duncan, J. and Kendall, C. (2005). «Effects of suburban development on runoff generation in the Croton River basin, New York, USA». Journal of Hydrology, 266-281.

Coombes, P.J.; Kuczera, G.; Kalma, J.D. and Argue, J.R. (2002). «An evaluation of the benefits of source control measures at the regional scale». Urban Water, 4, 307-320.

Coombes, P.J. and Kuczera, G. (2003). «Analysis of the Performance of rainwater tanks in Australian capital cities». 28th International hydrology and water resources symposium, 10-14 November. Wollongong, Australia.

Davison, G. (2008). «Down the gurgler: Historical influences on Australian domestic water consumption». In: Troy, P. (ed.). Troubled waters. Confronting the water crisis in Australia’s cities. ANU E Press. The Australian National University. Cam¬berra, Australia, 37-65.

Dingle, T. (2008). «The life and times of the Chadwickian solution». In: Troy, P. (ed.). Troubled waters: Confronting the water crisis in Australia’s cities. ANU E Press. The Australian National University. Camberra, Australia, 7-18.

Dixon, A.M.; Butler, D. and Fewkes, A. (1999). «Guidelines for greywater reuse: health issues». Water and Environment Journal, 13 (5), 322-326.

Domene, E. et al. (2004). Estudi del consum d’aigua als edificis de la Regió Metropolitana de Barcelona: Situació actual i possibilitats d’estalvi. Fundació Abertis, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Departament de Medi Ambient i Habitatge and Fudació Agbar. [https://www.fundacioabertis.org/rcs_est/estudi_complet.pdf, accessed: 10-02-10]

Echebarria, C.; Barrutia, J.M. and Aguado, I. (2004). «Local Agenda 21: Progress in Spain». European Urban and Regional Studies, 11 (3), 273-281.

Eriksson, E.; Auffarth, K.; Henze, M. and Ledin. A. (2002). «Characteristics of grey wastewater». Urban Water, 4, 85-104.

Fane, S. and Mitchell, C. (2006). «Appropriate cost analysis for decentralised water systems». Enviro 06 conference and exhibition, May 9-11, Melbourne, Australia.

Faruqui, N. and Al-Jayyousi, O. (2002). «Greywater reuse in urban agriculture for poverty alleviation. A case study in Jordan». Water International, 27 (3), 387-394.

Fewkes, A. (1999). «The use of rainwater for WC flushing: the field testing of a col¬lection system». Building and Environment, 34, 765-772.

Fewkes, A. (2006). «The technology, design and utility of rainwater catchment systems». In: Butler, D. and Memon, F.A. (eds.) (2006). Water Demand Management. London, UK: IWA Publishing.

Gandy, M. (2004). «Rethinking urban metabolism: Water, space and the modern city». City, 8 (3), 363-379.

Geels, F.W. (2002). «Technological transitions as evolutionary reconfiguration processes: a multi-level perspective and a case-study». Research Policy, 31, 1257-1274.

Geels, F.W. (2005). «Co-evolution of technology and society: The transition in water supply and personal hygiene in the Netherlands (1850-1930): A case study in multi-level perspective». Technology in Society, 27 (3), 363-397.

Gleick, P.H. (2000). «The changing water paradigm. A look at twenty-first century water resources development». Water International, 25 (1), 127-138.

Gleick, P.H. (2003). «Water use». Annual Review of Environmental Resources, 28, 275-314.

Gutiérrez-Ayuso, A. (2000-2001). «Contribución al conocimiento de los aljibes hispanomusulmanes extremeños: Tipología de un ejemplo de arquitectura del agua». Norba Arte, 7-27.

Hatt, B.E.; Deletic, A. and Fletcher, T.D. (2006). «Integrated treatment and recycling of stormwater: a review of Australian practice». Journal of Environmental Management, 79, 102-113.

Herman, T. and Schmida, U. (1999). «Rainwater utilisation in Germany: efficiency, dimensioning, hydraulic and environmental aspects». Urban Water, 307-316.

Heyworth, J.S.; Glonek, G.; Maynard, E.J. and Finlay-Jones, J. (2005). «Con¬sumption of untreated tank rainwater and gastroenteritis among young children in South Australia». International Journal of Epidemiology, 35 (4), 1051-1058.

Jeppesen, B. (1996). «Domestic greywater re-use: Australia’s challenge for the future». Desalination, 106, 311-315.

Kaika, M. (2005). City of flows: Modernity, nature and the city. New York: Routledge. Taylor and Francis Group.

Kallis, G. and Cocossis, H. (2003). «Managing Water for Athens: From the Hydraulic to the Rational Growth Paradigms». European Planning Studies, 11, 245-261.

Krozer, Y.; Hophmayer-Tokich, S.; Van Meerendonk, H.; Tijsma, S. and Vos, E. (2010). Innovations in the water chain: Experiences in The Netherlands.

Langergraber, G. and Muellegger, E. (2005). «Ecological Sanitation: A way to solve global sanitation problems?». Environment International, 31, 433-444.

Lye, D.J. (2009). «Rooftop runoff as a source of contamination: A review». Science of the Total Environment, 407, 5429-5434.

McCully, P. (1996). Silenced rivers: The ecology and politics of large dams. London, United Kingdom: Zed Books.

Mikkelsen, P.S.; Adeler, O.F.; Albrechtsen, H.J. and Henze, M. (1999). «Collect¬ed rainfall as a water source in Danish households: What is the potential and what are the costs?». Water Science and Technology, 39 (5), 49-56.

Niemczyniwiez, J. (1999). «Urban hydrology and water management: Present and future challenges». Urban Water, 1, 1-14.

Pahl-Wostl, C.; Mostert, E. and Tàbara, D. (2008). «The growing importance of social learning in water resources management and sustainability science». Ecology and Society, 13 (1), 24.

Pandey, D.N.; Gupta, A.K. and Anderson, D.M. (2003). «Rainwater harvesting as an adaptation to climate change». Current Science, 85 (1), 46-59.

PAP/RAC (2007). «Integrated Coastal Urban Water System Planning in Coastal Areas of the Mediterranean». Volume I. Principles and Planning. Split: PAP/RAC.

Pinfold, J.V.; Horan, N.J.; Wirojanagud, W. and Mara, D. (1993). «The bac¬teriological quality of rainjar water in rural northeast Thailand». Water Research, 27 (2), 297-302.

Rahman, A.; Dbais, J. and Imteaz, M. (2010). «Sustainability of Rainwater Harvest¬ing Systems in Multistorey Residential Buildings». American J. of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 3 (1), 889-898.

Rotmans, J.; Kemp, R. and Van Asselt, M. (2001). «More evolution than revolution: transition management in public policy». Foresight, 3 (1), 15-31.

Roy, A.H. et al. (2008). «Impediments and solutions to sustainable, watershed-scale urban stormwater management: lessons from Australia and the United States». Environmental Management, 42 (2), 344-359.

Saurí, D. and Moral, L. del (2001). «Recent developments in Spanish water policy: Alternatives and conflicts at the end of the hydraulic age». Geoforum, 32, 351-362.

Swyngedouw, E.; Moulaert, F. and Rodriguez, A. (2002). «Neoliberal Urbaniza¬tion in Europe: Large-Scale Urban Development Projects and the New Urban Policy». Antipode, 34, 542-577.

Swyngedouw, E. (2004). Social power and the urbanization of water: flows of power. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.

Swyngedouw, E. (2005). «Governance Innovation and the Citizen: The Janus Face of Governance-Beyond-the-State». Urban Studies, 42 (11), 1991-2006.

UNEP (2009). Rainwater harvesting: a lifeline for human well-being. A report prepared for UNEP by Stockholm Environment Institute.

Vaes, G. and Berlamont, J. (1999). «The impact of rainwater reuse on CSO emis¬sions». Water Science and Technology, 39 (5), 57-64.

Villareal, E.L. and Dixon, A. (2005). «Analysis of a rainwater collection system for domestic water supply in Ringdansen, Norrköpig, Sweden». Building and Environ¬ment, 40, 1174-1184.

Warner, W.S. (2006). «Understanding greywater treatment». In: Butler, D. and Memon, F.A. (eds.) (2006). Water Demand Management. London, UK: IWA Publishing.

World Water Assessment Programme (2009). The United Nations World Water Development Report 3: Water in a Changing World. París: UNESCO, and London: Earthscan.

Yaziz, M.I.; Gunting, H.; Sapari, N. and Ghazali, A.W. (1989). «Variations in rainwater quality from roof catchments». Water Research, 23 (6), 761-765.

Copyright (c) 2011 Laia Domènech
Llicència de Creative Commons
Aquesta obra està subjecta a una llicència de Reconeixement-NoComercial 4.0 Internacional de Creative Commons