From the «Resilient City» to Urban Resilience. A review essay on understanding and integrating the resilience perspective for urban systems

Lorenzo Chelleri

Resum

El concepte de resiliència sembla que actualment ha perdut significat. La banalització del concepte es deu, potser, a la proliferació del seu denominador comú o «capacitat de fer front a les pertorbacions» en moltes disciplines diferents. Un problema que se’n deriva és la manca de comprensió d’un nou concepte relacionat amb l’adaptació al canvi climàtic: «Resilient City». En aquest article, es pretén revisar l’evolució i les perspectives diferents del concepte de resiliència i analitzar la possible relació i aplicació d’aquestes perspectives a l’àmbit urbà. Un resultat de la revisió són les possibles malinterpretacions de la resiliència aplicada a l’ambient urbà quan ens referim a la principal propietat de conservació (resiliència entesa com a recuperació i tornada a l’estat previ després d’una pertorbació), que pot promoure un model urbà insostenible. Hi ha unes altres perspectives (la resiliència dels sistemes complexos) que ens transmeten missatges més sostenibles per a l’aplicació urbana d’aquest concepte, ja que s’interessen per les propietats de transformació i transició sostenible d’un sistema. D’aquesta manera, el concepte de resiliència aplicat a les ciutats ha de tenir en compte les propietats de conservació (capacitat de sobreviure al canvi), transició (mudar i adaptar-se al canvi) i transformació (reconfiguració del sistema) al mateix temps i desenvolupar-se d’acord amb unes dimensions socioeconòmiques i polítiques específiques.

Paraules clau

ciutats resilients; resiliència urbana; adaptació al canvi climàtic; transicions urbanes; sostenibilitat.

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