La ecología política urbana: veinte años de crítica, autocrítica y ampliación de fronteras en el estudio del metabolismo urbano

Rubén Alejandro Villar Navascués

Resum

L’ecologia política urbana (EPU) és una disciplina que explora les interaccions entre els factors socials, polítics, econòmics i naturals en la producció i en la reproducció d’ambients urbans, que són entesos com a híbrids socionaturals. L’objectiu d’aquest article és, a partir d’una revisió bibliogràfica de la producció científica, identificar les temàtiques i les línies de recerca principals per posar en relleu nous enfocaments que ajudin a fer front críticament a les interaccions socioecològiques que tenen lloc a les ciutats per poder plantejar models urbans sostenibles nous, tant des del punt de vista ecològic com social.

Paraules clau

ecologia política urbana; anàlisi bibliogràfica; metabolisme urbà; socionatures; riscos naturals

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KEAR, Mark (2007). «Spaces of transition spaces of tomorrow: Making a sustainable future in Southeast False Creek, Vancouver». Cities [en línea], 24 (4), 324-334. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2007.01.005

KEIL, Roger y BOUDREAU, Julie A. (2006). «Metropolitics and metabolics: Rolling out environmentalism in Toronto». En: HEYNEN, Nik; KAIKA, Maria y SWYNGEDOUW, Erik (eds.). In the nature of cities: Urban political ecology and the politics of urban metabolism [en línea]. Londres: Routledge, 40-61.

KENIS, Anneleen y LIEVENS, Matthias (2015). The limits of the green economy: From re-inventing capitalism to re-politicising the present [en línea], 1-170. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9781315769707

KITCHEN, Lawrence (2013). «Are trees always “good”?: Urban political ecology and environmental justice in the valleys of South Wales». International Journal of Urban and Regional Research [en línea], 37 (6), 1968-1983. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.2012.01138.x

MARCH, Hug y RIBERA-Fumaz, Ramón (2014a). «Smart contradictions: The politics of making Barcelona a Self-sufficient city». European Urban and Regional Studies [en línea], noviembre, 1-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0969776414554488

— (2014b). «Una revisión crítica desde la Ecología Política Urbana del concepto Smart City en el Estado español». Ecología Política, 47, 29-36.

MCLAIN, Rebecca J.; HURLEY, Patrick T.; EMERY, Marla R. y POE, Melissa R. (2014). «Gathering “wild” food in the city: Rethinking the role of foraging in urban ecosystem planning and management». Local Environment [en línea], 19 (2), 220-240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13549839.2013.841659

MILBOURNE, Paul (2012). «Everyday (in)justices and ordinary environmentalisms: Community gardening in disadvantaged urban neighbourhoods». Local Environment [en línea], 17 (9), 943-957. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13549839.2011.607158

MILLINGTON, Nate (2013). «Post-Industrial Imaginaries: Nature, Representation and Ruin in Detroit, Michigan». International Journal of Urban and Regional Research [en línea], 37 (1), 279-296. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.2012.01206.x

MONSTADT, Jochen (2009). «Conceptualizing the political ecology of urban infrastructures: Insights from technology and urban studies». Environmment and Planning A [en línea], 41, 1924-1942. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a4145

MOORE, Sarah (2006). «Forgotten roots of the Green City: Subsistence gardening in Columbus, Ohio, 1900-1940». Urban Geography [en línea], 27 (2), 174-192. http://dx.doi.org/10.2747/0272-3638.27.2.174

MOROTE, Álvaro F. y HERNÁNDEZ, María (2014). «Jardines y urbanizaciones: Nuevas naturalezas urbanas en el litoral de la provincia de Alicante». Documents d’Anàlisi Geogràfica [en línea], 60 (3), 483-504. http://dx.doi.org/10.5565/rev/dag.122

NJERU, Jeremia (2010). «“Defying” democratization and environmental protection in Kenya: The case of Karura Forest reserve in Nairobi». Political Geography [en línea], 29 (6), 333-342. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polgeo.2010.07.003

— (2013). «“Donor-driven” neoliberal reform processes and urban environmental change in Kenya: The case of Karura Forest in Nairobi». Progress in Development Studies [en línea], 13 (1), 63-78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/146499341201300105

PADULLÉS, Josep; VILA, Josep y BARRIOCANAL, Carles (2014a). «Maintenance, Modifications, and Water Use in Private Gardens of Alt Empordà, Spain». HortTechnology, 24 (3), 374-383.

— (2014b). «Examining floristic boundaries between garden types at the global scale». Investigaciones Geográficas [en línea], 61 (1), 71-86. http://dx.doi.org/10.14198/ingeo2014.61.05

PARÉS, Marc (2005). «Espai públic enjardinat: Impactes ambientals, model urbà i individualització a la Regió Metropolitana de Barcelona». Documents d’Anàlisi Geogràfica, 45, 91-109.

PARÉS, Marc; DOMENE, Elena y SAURÍ, David (2004). «Gestión del agua en la jardinería pública y privada de la Región Metropolitana de Barcelona». Boletín de la Asociación de Geógrafos Españoles, 37, 223-237.

PARÉS, Marc; MARCH, Hug y SAURÍ, David (2013). «Atlantic Gardens in Mediterranean Climates: Understanding the Production of Suburban Natures in Barcelona». International Journal of Urban and Regional Research [en línea], 37 (1), 328-347. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.2012.01118.x

PERKINS, Harold A.; HEYNEN, Nik y WILSON, Joe (2004). «Inequitable access to urban reforestation: The impact of urban political economy on housing tenure and urban forests». Cities [en línea], 21 (4), 291-299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2004.04.002

QUASTEL, Noah; MOOS, Markus y LYNCH, Nicholas (2012). «Sustainability-as-density and the return of the social: The case of Vancouver, British Columbia». Urban Geography [en línea], 33 (7), 1055-1084. http://dx.doi.org/10.2747/0272-3638.33.7.1055

ROBBINS, Paul (2007). Lawn People: How Grasses, Weeds, and Chemicals Make Us Who We Are. Filadelfia: Temple University Press.

ROBBINS, Paul y BIRKENHOLTZ, Trevor (2003). «Turf-grass revolution: Measuring the expansion of the American lawn». Land Use Policy [en línea], 20 (2), 181-194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0264-8377(03)00006-1

ROBBINS, Paul; POLDERMAN, Anne M. y BIRKENHOLTZ, Trevor (2001). «Lawns and Toxins: An Ecology of the City». Cities [en línea], 18 (6), 369-380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0264-2751(01)00029-4

ROBBINS, Paul y SHARP, Julie (2003). «The Lawn-Chemical Economy and its Discontents». Antipode [en línea], 35 (5), 955-979. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8330.2003.00366.x

— (2006). «Turfgrass subjects: The political economy of urban monoculture». En: HEYNEN, Nik; KAIKA, Maria y SWYNGEDOUW, Erik (eds.). In the nature of cities: Urban political ecology and the politics of urban metabolism. Londres: Routledge, 106-123.

— (2008). «Producing and consuming chemicals: The moral economy of the american lawn». En: MARZLUFF, John M. et al. (eds.). Urban Ecology: An International Perspective on the Interaction between Humans and Nature. Nueva York: Springer, 181-205.

SAFRANSKY, Sara (2014). «Greening the urban frontier: Race, property, and resettlement in Detroit». Geoforum [en línea], 237-248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2014.06.003

SHILLINGTON, Laura J. (2013). «Right to food, right to the city: Household urban agriculture, and socionatural metabolism in Managua, Nicaragua». Geoforum [en línea], 44, 103-111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2012.02.006

TROY, Laurence (2014). «(Re)Producing nature in Pyrmont and Ultimo». Geographical Research [en línea], 52 (4), 387-399. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1745-5871.12074

Flujos metabólicos

ANGUELOVSKI, Isabelle (2015). «Alternative food provision conflicts in cities: Contesting food privilege, injustice, and whiteness in Jamaica Plain, Boston». Geoforum [en línea], 58, 184-194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2014.10.014

BIEHLER, Dawn D. (2009). «Permeable homes: A historical political ecology of insects and pesticides in US public housing». Geoforum [en línea], 40 (6), 1014-1023. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2009.08.004

BJERKLI, Camilla Louise (2015). «Power in waste: Conflicting agendas in planning for integrated solid waste management in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia». Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift [en línea], 69 (1), 18-27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00291951.2014.992806

BRUZZELLI, Michael (2008). «A political ecology of scale in urban air pollution monitoring». Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers [en línea], 33 (4), 502-517. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-5661.2008.00316.x

DEMARIA, Federico y SCHINDLER, Seth (2015). «Contesting Urban Metabolism: Struggles Over Waste-to-Energy in Delhi, India». Antipode [en línea], 1-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/anti.12191

GRAHAM, Stephen (2015). «Life support: The political ecology of urban air». City [en línea], 19 (2-3), 192-215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13604813.2015.1014710

HEYNEN, Nik (2006b). «Justice of eating in the city: the political ecology of urban hunger». En: HEYNEN, Nik; KAIKA, Maria y SWYNGEDOUW, Erik (eds.): In the nature of cities: Urban political ecology and the politics of urban metabolism. Londres: Routledge, 124-136.

HEYNEN, Nik; PERKINS, Harold A. y ROY, Parama (2006b). «The political ecology of uneven urban green space: The impact of political economy on race and ethnicity in producing environmental inequality in Milwaukee». Urban Affairs Review [en línea], 42 (1), 3-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1078087406290729

HOLIFIELD, Ryan (2009). «Actor-Network theory as a critical approach to environmental justice: A case against synthesis with urban political ecology». Antipode [en línea], 41 (4), 637-658. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8330.2009.00692.x

HOUSTON, Donna y RUMING, Kristian (2014). «Suburban toxicity: A political ecology of asbestos in Australian cities». Geographical Research [en línea], 52 (4), 400-410. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1745-5871.12075

INSTONE, Lesley y SWEENEY, Jill (2014). «Dog waste, wasted dogs: The contribution of human-dog relations to the political ecology of Australian urban space». Geographical Research [en línea], 52 (4), 355-364. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1745-5871.12059

KAY, Samuel; ZHAO, Bo y SUI, Daniel (2015). «Can Social Media Clear the Air?: A Case Study of the Air Pollution Problem in Chinese Cities». Professional Geographer [en línea], 67 (3), 351-363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00330124.2014.970838

LAWHON, Mary (2013). «Flows, friction and the sociomaterial metabolization of alcohol». Antipode [en línea], 45 (3), 681-701. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8330.2012.01028.x

LEONARD, Llewellyn (2012). «Another political ecology of civil society reflexiveness against urban industrial risks for environmental justice: The case of the Bisasar landfill, Durban, South Africa». Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography [en línea], 33 (1), 77-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9493.2012.00448.x

MARVIN, Simon y MEDD, Will (2006). «Metabolism of obe-city: Flows of fat through bodies, cities and sewers». En: HEYNEN, Nik; KAIKA, Maria y SWYNGEDOUW, Erik (eds.). In the nature of cities: Urban political ecology and the politics of urban metabolism. Londres: Routledge, 137-149.

MCCLINTOCK, Nathan (2015). «A critical physical geography of urban soil contamination». Geoforum [en línea], 65, 69-85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2015.07.010

MOORE, Sarah A. (2008). «The politics of garbage in Oaxaca, Mexico». Society and Natural Resources [en línea], 21 (7), 597-610. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08941920701759551

MORAGUES-FAUS, Ana y MORGAN, Kevin (2015). «Reframing the foodscape: The emergent world of urban food policy». Environment and Planning A [en línea], 47 (7), 1558-1573. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0308518X15595754

MORGAN, Kevin (2015). «Nourishing the city: The rise of the urban food question in the Global North». Urban Studies [en línea], 52 (8), 1379-1394. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0042098014534902

MULLIGAN, Kate; ELLIOTT, Susan J. y SCHUSTER-WALLACE, Corinne J. (2012). «The place of health and the health of place: Dengue fever and urban governance in Putrajaya, Malaysia». Health and Place [en línea], 18 (3), 613-620. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2012.01.001

NJERU, Jeremia (2006). «The urban political ecology of plastic bag waste problem in Nairobi, Kenya». Geoforum [en línea], 37 (6), 1046-1058. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2006.03.003

OSTOS, Joan Ramon (2014). «Erik Swyngedouw y la ecología política urbana». Ecología Política, 47, 110-118.

PARIZEAU, Kate (2015). «Urban political ecologies of informal recyclers’ health in Buenos Aires, Argentina». Health and Place [en línea], 33, 67-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2015.02.007

PERKINS, Harold A. (2007). «Ecologies of actor-networks and (non)social labor within the urban political economies of nature». Geoforum [en línea], 38 (6), 1152-1162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2007.01.007

SAGUIN, Kristian (2014). «Biographies of fish for the city: Urban metabolism of Laguna Lake aquaculture». Geoforum [en línea], 54, 28-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2014.03.008

SOLÍZ, María F. (2014). «Ecología política y geografía crítica de la basura en el Ecuador: Determinación social y conflictos distributivos». Ecología Política, 47, 56-61.

VÉRON, René (2006). «Remaking urban environments: The political ecology of air pollution in Delhi». Environment and Planning A [en línea], 38 (11), 2093-2109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a37449

YATES JULIAN, S. y GUTBERLET, Jutta (2011). «Reclaiming and recirculating urban natures: Integrated organic waste management in Diadema, Brazil». Environment and Planning A [en línea], 43 (9), 2109-2124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a4439

Ecología política urbana de los riesgos naturales

AJIBADE, Idowu y MCBEAN, Gordon (2014). «Climate extremes and housing rights: A political ecology of impacts, early warning and adaptation constraints in Lagos slum communities». Geoforum [en línea], 55, 76-86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2014.05.005

BAXTER, Vern (2014). «Rent, Real Estate, and Flood Mitigation in New Orleans East». Antipode, 46 (4), 1014-1031. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/anti.12080

COLLINS, Timothy W. (2010). «Marginalization, facilitation, and the production of unequal risk: The 2006 Paso del Norte floods». Antipode [en línea], 42 (2), 258-288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8330.2009.00755.x

GIGLIOLI, Ilaria y SWYNGEDOUW, Erik (2008). «Let’s Drink to the Great Thirst!: Water and the Politics of Fractured Techno-natures in Sicily». International Journal of Urban and Regional Research [en línea], 32 (2), 392-414. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.2008.00789.x

GUSTAFSON, Seth (2015a). «Maps and contradictions: Urban political ecology and cartographic expertise in southern Appalachia». Geoforum [en línea], 60, 143-152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2015.01.017

— (2015b). «The making of a landslide: Legibility and expertise in exurban southern Appalachia». Environment and Planning A [en línea], 47 (7), 1404-1421. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0308518X15595767

IORIS, Antonio A.R. (2012c). «The geography of multiple scarcities: Urban development and water problems in Lima, Peru». Geoforum [en línea], 43 (3), 612-622. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2011.12.005

KAIKA, Maria (2003). «Constructing Scarcity and Sensationalising Water Politics: 170 Days that Shook Athens». Antipode [en línea], 35 (5), 919-953. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8330.2003.00365.x

— (2005). City of Flows: Modernity, Nature and the City. Londres: Routledge.

— (2006). «The political ecology of water scarcity: The 1989-1991 Athenian drought». En: HEYNEN, Nik; KAIKA, Maria y SWYNGEDOUW, Erik (eds.). In the nature of cities: Urban political ecology and the politics of urban metabolism. Londres: Routledge [en línea], 150-164. http://dx.doi.org/10.2747/0272-3638.28.2.206

MARKS, Danny (2015). «The urban political ecology of the 2011 floods in Bangkok: The creation of uneven vulnerabilities». Pacific Affairs [en línea], 88 (3), 623-651. http://dx.doi.org/10.5509/2015883623

MUSTAFA, Daanish (2005). «The production of an urban hazardscape in Pakistan: Modernity, vulnerability, and the range of choice». Annals of the Association of American Geographers [en línea], 95 (3), 566-586. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.2005.00475.x

OTERO, Iago; KALLIS, Giorgos; AGUILAR, Raúl y RUIZ, Vicenç (2011). «Water scarcity, social power and the production of an elite suburb: The political ecology of water in Matadepera, Catalonia». Ecological Economics [en línea], 70 (7), 1297-1308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.09.011

PADAWANGI, Rita y DOUGLASS, Mike (2015). «Water, water everywhere: Toward participatory solutions to chronic urban flooding in Jakarta». Pacific Affairs [en línea], 88 (3), 517-550. http://dx.doi.org/10.5509/2015883517

PELLING, Mark (1999). «The political ecology of flood hazard in urban Guyana». Geoforum [en línea], 30 (3), 249-261. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0016-7185(99)00015-9

RANGANATHAN, Malini (2015). «Storm Drains as Assemblages: The Political Ecology of Flood Risk in Post-Colonial Bangalore». Antipode [en línea], 47 (5), 1300-1320. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/anti.12149

ROMERO, Hugo; FUENTES, Claudio y SMITH, Pamela (2010). «Ecología política de los riesgos naturales y de la contaminación ambiental en Santiago de Chile: Necesidad de justicia ambiental». Scripta Nova: Revista Electrónica de Geografía y Ciencias Sociales [en línea], XIV (331), 52. Barcelona: Universidad de Barcelona. http://www.ub.edu/geocrit/sn/sn-331/sn-331-52.htm

SIMON, Gregory L. (2014). «Vulnerability-in-Production: A Spatial History of Nature, Affluence, and Fire in Oakland, California». Annals of the Association of American Geographers [en línea], 104 (6), 1199-1221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00045608.2014.941736

SIMON, Gregory L. y DOOLING, Sarah (2013). «Flame and fortune in California: The material and political dimensions of vulnerability». Global Environmental Change [en línea], 23 (6), 1410-1423. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.08.008

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