Emigració rural i retorn: perspectives sobre el paper de la realitat quotidiana i l’idil·li a Irlanda


  • Mary Cawley National University of Ireland Galway Whitaker Institute for Innovation and Societal Change and School of Geography, Archaeology and Irish Studies https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5040-9280


El propòsit d’aquest article és reconèixer el paper de l’idil·li rural com un factor influent en la població emigrant retornada. S’han dut a terme entrevistes a trenta-quatre emigrants de primera generació retornats a Irlanda. La desocupació i les limitacions en el desenvolupament laboral i personal van afavorir l’emigració a altres països, normalment a ciutats importants. La consciència de la pèrdua de característiques pròpies de l’idil·li rural apareix en l’etapa d’adaptació a l’estil de vida de l’àrea de destinació. Els records de les característiques positives de la vida rural van afavorir el retorn dels emigrants, especialment els que tenien fills. La capacitat per al retorn depenia en tot cas de les circumstàncies econòmiques. Certes característiques de l’idil·li rural es van recuperar un cop retornats, però la realitat de la vida al camp es va fer també palesa. Algunes persones van emigrar de nou. Una millor comprensió de l’idil·li i de la realitat quotidiana ajudaria a dissenyar les polítiques necessàries per fomentar el retorn de les persones emigrades al medi rural.

Paraules clau

realitat rural, idil·li, migració de retorn, Irlanda


AHMED, Sara (1999). “Home and away: narratives of migration and estrangement”. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 2 (3), 329-347. https://doi.org/10.1177/136787799900200303

ARNETT, Jeffrey J. (2000). “Emerging adulthood: a theory of development from the late teens through the twenties”. American Psychologist, 55 (5), 469-480. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.5.469

BARCUS, Holly R. and BRUNN, Stanley D. (2010). “Place elasticity: exploring a new conceptualisation of mobility and place attachment in rural America”. Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography, 92 (4), 281-295. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0467.2010.00353.x

BARRETT, Alan and MOSCA, Irene (2013). “Social isolation, loneliness and return migration: evidence from older Irish adults”. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 39 (10), 1659-1677. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2013.833694

BOYLE, Paul and HALFACREE, Keith (1998). Migration into Rural Areas. Chichester: Wiley and Sons.

CASTLES, Stephen; DE HAAS, Hein and MILLER, Mark J. (2014, 5th ed.). The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

CAWLEY, Mary (2015). “International return migration and rural sustainability: Irish evidence”. Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 10 (3), 15-24. http://www.ubm.ro/sites/CJEES/viewIssue.php?issueId=30

CAWLEY, Mary and GALVIN, Stephen (2016). “Irish migration and return: continuities and changes over time”. Irish Geography, 49 (1), 11-27. http://dx.doi.org/10.2014/igj.v49il.643

CHRISTIAANSE, Suzan and HAARTSEN, Tialda (2017). “The influence of symbolic and emotional meanings of rural facilities on reactions to closure: the case of the village supermarket”. Journal of Rural Studies, 54, 326-336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2017.07.005

CLOKE, Paul (ed.) (2003). Country Visions. Harlow, Essex: Prentice Hall.

CONWAY, Denis and POTTER, Robert B. (2006). “Caribbean transnational return migrants as agents of change”. Geography Compass, 1 (1), 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-8198.2006.00001.x

DE BREE, June; DAVIDS, Tine and DE HAAS, Hein (2010). “Post-return experiences and transnational belonging of return migrants: a Dutch–Moroccan case study”. Global Networks, 10 (4), 489-509. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0374.2010.00299.x

DROOGLEEVER FORTUIJN, Joos and VAN DER MEER, Marieke (2006). “Gender and voluntary work in late adulthood in rural communities in the Netherlands”. GeoJournal, 65, 381-392. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10708-006-0029-6

DUSTMANN, Christian; FADLON, Itzik and WEISS, Yoram (2011). “Return migration, human capital accumulation and the brain drain”. Journal of Development Economics, 95 (1), 58-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdeveco.2010.04.006

EUROSTAT. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Glossary [consulted: July 27, 2018].

FARRELL, Maura; MAHON, Marie and MCDONAGH, John (2012). “The rural as a return migration destination”. European Countryside, 4 (1), 31-44.

FIELDING, Tony (1992). “Migration and culture”. In: CHAMPION, TONY and FIELDING, TONY (eds.). Migration Processes and Patterns: Vol. 1 Research Progress and Prospects. London: Belhaven, 201-212.

GLYNN, Irial; KELLY, Tomás and MACÉINRÍ, Piaras (2013). Irish Emigration in an Age of Austerity. Cork: Emigré, University College Cork.

GMELCH, George (1980). “Return migration”. Annual Review of Anthropology, 9, 135-159. https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev.an.09.100180.001031

GRANOVETTER, Mark (1973). “The strength of weak ties”. American Journal of Sociology, 78 (6), 1360-1380. https://doi.org/10.1086/225469

GUSTAFSON, Per (2001a). “Meanings of place: everyday experience and theoretical conceptualisations”. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 21 (1), 5-16. https://doi.org/10.1006/jevp.2000.0185

GUSTAFSON, Per (2001b). “Roots and routes: exploring the relationship between place attachment and mobility”. Environment and Behaviour, 33 (5), 667-686. https://doi.org/10.1177/00139160121973188

HAARTSEN, Tialda and THISSEN, Frans (2014). “The success-failure dichotomy revisited: young adults’ motives to return to their rural home region”. Children’s Geographies, 12 (1), 87-101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14733285.2013.850848

HALFACREE, Keith H. (1993). “Locality and social representation: space, discourse and alternative definitions of the rural”. Journal of Rural Studies, 9, 23-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/0743-0167(93)90003-3

HALFACREE, Keith H. (2012). “Heterolocal identities? Counter‐urbanisation, second homes, and rural consumption in the era of mobilities”. Population, Space and Place, 18, 209-224. https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.665

HAY, Robert (1998). “Sense of place in developmental context”. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 18, 5-29. https://doi.org/10.1006/jevp.1997.0060

JENTCH, Birgit and SHUCKSMITH, Mark (eds.) (2004). Young People in Rural Areas in Europe. Aldershot: Ashgate.

MACLAUGHLIN, Jim (1994). The Emigrant Nursery and the World Economy. Cork: Cork University Press.

MATTHEWS, Hugh; TAYLOR, Mark; SHERWOOD, Kenneth; TUCKER, Faith and LIMB, Melanie (2000). “Growing-up in the countryside: children and the rural idyll”. Journal of Rural Studies, 16, 141-153. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0743-0167(99)00059-5

MCHUGH POWER, Joanna E.; HANNIGAN, Caoimhe; CARNEY, Síle and LAWLOR, Brian A. (2017). “Exploring the meaning of loneliness among socially isolated older adults in rural Ireland: a qualitative investigation”. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 14 (4), 394-414. https://doi.org/10.1080/14780887.2017.1329363

MORSE, Cheryl (2017). “The emotional geographies of return migration to Vermont”. Emotion, Space and Society, 25, 14-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emospa.2017.09.007

MORSE, Cheryl and MUDGETT, Jill (2017). “Longing for landscape: homesickness and place attachment among rural out-migrants in the 19th and 21st centuries”. Journal of Rural Studies, 50, 95-103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2017.01.002

NEWBOLD, K. Bruce (2001). “Counting migrants and migrations: comparing lifetime and fixed-interval return and onward migration”. Economic Geography, 77 (1), 23-40. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-8287.2001.tb00154.x

NÍ LAOIRE, Caitríona (2007). “The ‘green green grass of home’? Return migration to rural Ireland”. Journal of Rural Studies, 23 (3), 332-344. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2007.01.005

OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) (2010). Strategies to Improve Rural Service Delivery. Paris: OECD.

PASCUAL-DE-SANS, Àngels (2004). “Sense of place and migration histories: idiotopy and idiotope”. Area, 36 (4), 348-357. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0004-0894.2004.00236.x

PLOEG, Jan Douwe van der (2012, ebook). The New Peasantries: Struggles for Autonomy and Sustainability in an Era of Empires and Globalization. London: Routledge.

PUNCH, Adrian and FINNERAN, Catherine (1999). “The demographic and socio-economic characteristics of migrants, 1986–1996”. Journal of the Statistical and Social Inquiry Society of Ireland, 28 (1), 213-263. http://hdl.handle.net/2262/2678

RALPH, David (2014). “‘Equally at home on Beacon Hill and Hill 16?’ Transnational identities among Irish-born return migrants from the United States”. Global Networks, 14 (4), 477-494. https://doi.org/10.1111/glob.12046

RELPH, Edward (1976). Place and Placelessness. London: Pion.

ROGERS, Andrei; RAQUILLET, Richard and CASTRO, Luis J. (1978). “Model migration schedules and their applications”. Environment and Planning A, 10, 475-502. https://doi.org/10.1068/a100475

RYE, Jonathan (2006). “Rural youths’ images of the rural”. Journal of Rural Studies, 22 (4), 409-421. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2006.01.005

SALDAŇA, Johnny (2013). The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers. London: Sage.

SCHMALLEGGER, Doris and CARSON, Dean (2010). “Is tourism just another staple? A new perspective on tourism in remote regions”. Current Issues in Tourism, 13 (3), 201-221. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500903359152

SHUCKSMITH, Mark (2018). “Re-imagining the rural: from rural idyll to good countryside”. Journal of Rural Studies, 59, 163-172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2016.07.019

SJAASTAD, Larry A. (1962). “The costs and returns of human migration”. The Journal of Political Economy, 70 (5ii), 80-93. https://www.jstor.org/stable/1829105

STOCKDALE, Aileen (2006). “Migration: pre-requisite for rural economic regeneration?” Journal of Rural Studies, 22 (3), 354-366. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2005.11.001

STOCKDALE, Aileen; MACLEOD, Marsaili and PHILIP, Lorna (2013). “Connected life courses: influences on and experiences of ‘midlife’ migration to rural areas”. Population, Space and Place, 19 (3), 239-257. https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.1709

THISSEN, Frans; DROOGLEEVER FORTUIJN, Joos; STRIJKER, Dirk and HAARTSEN, Tialda (2010). “Migration intentions of rural youth in the Westhoek, Flanders Belgium and the Veenkoloniën, The Netherlands”. Journal of Rural Studies, 26, 432-436. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2010.05.001

TÖNNIES, Ferdinand (1887/1963). Community and society (Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft, translated and edited by Charles E. Loomis). New York: Harper and Row.

WALTER, Bronwyn (1980). “Time-space patterns of second wave Irish immigration into British towns”. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers New Series, 5 (3), 297-317. https://doi.org/10.2307/621844

WILLIAMS, Raymond (1973). The City and the Countryside. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

WOODS, Michael (2011). Rural. London: Routledge.

Biografia de l'autor/a

Mary Cawley, National University of Ireland Galway Whitaker Institute for Innovation and Societal Change and School of Geography, Archaeology and Irish Studies

Adjunct-Professor Whitaker Institute for Public Policy and Innovation and Senior Lecturer Emerita, School of Geography and Archaeology



Com citar

Cawley, M. (2020). Emigració rural i retorn: perspectives sobre el paper de la realitat quotidiana i l’idil·li a Irlanda. Documents d’Anàlisi Geogràfica, 66(2), 289–305. https://doi.org/10.5565/rev/dag.588


Les dades de descàrrega encara no estan disponibles.